The People Mentioned In The Bible, And Archeology

Jan 19, 2020 | Bible Archeology | 0 comments

Compiled By: Dr. Johnson C.  Philip

There is so much archeological data now available, but is so scattered around in museusms, private collections, and the information about them is so scattered in books and journal articles published in several countries over a period of one century or more, that it is well nigh impossible for any single writer or student of archeology to know about these. Nor has any book, it seems, except a few dictionaries or archeology, ever tried to collect all such data into a centralize place.

  1. BiblicalArcheology.Net will keep trying to become this kind of a central dipository of comprehensive information, and as part of this vision, available information is tabulated below. This list deals only with “persons” mentioned in the Bible. This list is in Chronological order, according to date the person lived, or ruled.
  2. Very soon we will add links to related archeological discoveries. Any information you send is appreciated, and will be acknowledged.
  3. Similar lists about places, things, and other biblical lists will also be available on this site. All these lists keep growing as we discover information from various sources. Some of the most important sources are listed at the end of this document. Students interested in this information are advised to check this site occassionally for additional information/updates. The date given below will help you to check if new information has been added.

Last Update  October 2004

Correction, Additions, Errors May Kindly Be Pointed Out To: Webmaster  BiblicalArcheology.Net

Person Mentioned 
The In Bible
[Approx Date Of Interest]
Place Where 
Mentioned in Bible .————–
Related Archeological Discovery
Balaam ca. 1400 B.C. Num. 22:5 – The son of Beor; called by Balak, King of Moab, to curse Israel An inscription found in 1967 at a temple at Deir Alla (Biblical Succoth) contains an Aramic inscription that contains messages of doom and curses from Balaam, son of Beor. He is also called a “seer of the gods.” Inscription dated to 700 B.C.
Israel (Nation) 1220 B.C. Exodus 5:1 – The Old Testament name for the Jewish Nation The “Israel stele” of Merneptah is the earliest mention by the nation of Israel in a secular source.
David 1011-971 B.C. 1 Sam 16:13; 2 Sam 5:3-4 – Second King of United Israel; Killed Goliath Stone inscription found at Tel Dan by Avraham Biran in 1993 which speaks of “the King of Israel” which was of “the house of David.”
Hezion ca. 900 B.C. 1 Kings 15:18 – Father of Tabrimmon, father of Barhadad Stele dedicated to god Baal Melqart found at Aleppo bears an Aramaic inscription that mentions Barhadad, son of Tabrimmon, son of Hezion
Ben Hadad I r. ca. 900-860 B.C. 1 Kings 15:18 – Son of Tabrimmon, Son of Hezion, King of Syria (Aram) 1. Stone monument of treaty with King Pygmalion of Tyre.

2. Stele dedicated to god, Baal Melqart found at Aleppo bears an Aramaic inscription that mentions Barhadad, son of Tabrimmon, son of Hezion, King of Aram.

Omri ca. 885-874 B.C. 1 Kings 16:16 – 6th King of Israel 1. Mesha stele (Moabite stone) tells that AOmri, King of Israel subjugated Moab.

2. Assyrian records refer to Israel as AOmri-land or Athe house of Omri.

3. Black obelisk refers to AJehu, son of Omri.

Jezebel r. ca. 874-853 B.C. 1 Kings 16:31 – Wife of Ahab; wicked Baal worshiping queen Fine seal in the Israel Museum has the name AJezebel.
Ben Hadad II (May be same person as Ben Hadad I) ca. 860-843 B.C. 1 Kings 20:1 – King of Syrian (Aram) Called Hadadezer in Assyrian records from 853 B.C. that records the battle of Qarqar with Shalmaneser III.
Mesha ca. 853 B.C. 2 Kings 3:4 – King of Moab On Moabite stone, Mesha complains about having been oppressed by Omri, King of Israel and boasts of driving Israel out.
Hazael 842-805 B.C. 1 Kings 19:15 – King of Aram (Syria); succeeded (murdered) Ben-Hadad II 1. Ivory inlay fragment found at Arslan Tash bears the name Hazael 

2. Cuneiform inscriptions of Shalmaneser III military campaigns 

3. Inscription on statue mentions Barhadad, son of Hazael

Jehu ca. 841-814 B.C. 1 Kings 19:16 – 11th King of Israel 1. Black obelisk of Shalmaneser III in British Museum depicts Jehu bowing and tells of the “tribute of Jehu, son of Omri.”

2. Cuneiform tablet of Shalmaneser III, also records receiving tribute from “Jehu.”

Jehoash (Joash) ca. 801-786 B.C. 2 Kings 13:10 – 13th King of Israel; son of Jehoahuz On a stele found at Tell al-Riman in 1967, Assyrian King Adad-Nirari III relates how he received tribute from AJehoash the Samarian
Ben Hadad III ca. 798-722 B.C. 2 Kings 13:24-25 – King of Syria (Aram); Son of Hazael Zakir King of Hamuth relates that Barhadad, the son of Hazael, fought against him.
Jeroboam II ca. 793-753 B.C. 2 Kings 13:13 – 14th King of Israel; son of Jehoash Seal of Jasper found at Megiddo has a roaring lion and the inscription ABelonging to Shema, servant of Jeroboam.
Uzziah 790-739 B.C. 2 Kings 15:13 – also called Azariah; 10th King of Judah; leper when he died. Aramaic inscription on a stone plaque – 13″ x 14″ – reads “Hither were brought the bones of Uzziah, King of Judah.” Plaque found in tomb on Mt. of Olives but bones were not found.
Menahem ca. 752-742 B.C. 2 Kings 15:17 – 17th King of Israel Tiglath-Pileser relates in a cuneiform text found at Calah that he received tribute from AMenahem of Samaria.
Jotham ca. 750-731 B.C. 2 Kings 15:32 – 11th King of Judah 1. Seal, signet ring found at Ezion Geber (Elath) inscription – ABelonging to Jotham   also ram in seal – in Smithsonian Institution.
2. Bulla in collection of Shlomo Moussaieff which reads AAhaz (son of) Jotham, King of Judah
Pul (Tiglath-Pileser III) ca. 745-727 B.C. 2 Kings 15:19 – Assyrian King; called Pul in Bible; his records mention several Jewish kings. 1. Palace found at Ninevah.

2. Another palace found with reliefs of Tiglath-Pileser

3. Numerous cuneiform tablets including 2 King lists and the annals of Tiglath-Pileser.

Pekah ca. 740-732 B.C. 2 Kings 15:27 – 19th King of Israel 1. Tiglath-Pileser III records in an annalistic text that he overturned Pekah.

2. Pottery jar at Hazor from the time of Pekah is inscribed with name APekah.

735-715 B.C.
2 Kings 16:2 – 12th King of Judah; son of Jotham; idolatrous; listed in Jesus’ genealogy (Mt 1:9) 1. Cuneiform inscription of Tiglath Pileser’s campaign against Palestine (called Jehoahaz);

2. Seal with inscription Abelonging to Usna, “Minister of Ahaz”

3. Bulla with impression “Ahaz (son of) Jotham King of Judah”

Hoshea ca. 732-722 B.C. 2 Kings 17:1 – 20th (and last) King of Israel 1. Seal purchased at Sotheby=s reads “Belonging to Abdi, servant of Hoshea”
2. Tiglath-Pilser III records helping Hoshea come to throne
Rezin d. 732 B.C. 2 Kings 15:37 – King of Aram (Syria); killed by Tiglath-Pileser III 1. Cuneiform tablet of Tiglath-Pileser III lists tribute received from Rezin

2. Tablet tells of fall of Damascus and names Rezin.

Shalmaneser V 727-722 B.C. 2 Kings 17:3 – King of Assyria; son of Tiglath-Pileser 1. Babylonian Chronicle cites his activities.

2. Name found on boundary stone to date an event to his third year.

3. Bronze weight has inscription which contains his name.

4. Babylonian King list records him.

Sargon II 722-705 B.C. Isa. 20:1 – King of Assyria; brother of Shalmaneser V 1. Palace found at Khorsabad with multiple carvings of Sargon in relief.

2. Extensive cuneiform texts tell about his exploits and reign (which include the annals & Sargon=s prism).

3. Fragment of stele found at Ashdod and erected after Sargon=s victory.

Merodach-Baladar ca. 721-709 B.C. 2 Kings 20:12 – King of Babylon 1. Stele for a land grant depicts Merodach-Baladar and has text about him. 

2. Babylonian chronicle 

3. King List A 

4. Numerous cuneiform inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, and Sennacherib. 

5. Cuneiform cylinder written by Merodach-Baladar boasting of driving out Assyrians.

Hezekiah r. ca. 715-686 B.C. Kings 18:2 – 13th King of Judah; dug tunnel for water from Gihon Spring 1. Clay bulla in Israel Museum bears inscription, “Jehozara,…servant of Hezekiah.” 

2. Sennacherib records shutting Hezekiah up like a bird in Jerusalem and twice more mentions him elsewhere.

Shebna ca. 700 B.C. 2 Kings 18:18 – Court official of Hezekiah Partial tomb inscription found in Silvan has been reconstructed by Avigad to contain part of Shebna=s name.
Manasseh ca. 697-642 B.C. 2 Kings 20:21 – 14th King of Judah 1. Seal reading ABelonging to Manassah, the son of the King may be from time when he was crown prince. 

2. Esarhaddon lists AManassah, King of Judah on Prism B which lists those who contributed material to his new palace. 

3. Ashurbanipal, on Cylinder C, lists AManassah, King of Judah as being forced to accompany him on his Egyptian campaign.

Sharezer ca. 681 B.C. 2 Kings 19:37 – Son of Sennacherib; helped kill his father. Cuneiform tablet refers to Nabusharuzur as an officer in right time period.
Esarhaddon r. 681-669 B.C. 2 Kings 19:37 – King of Assyria; Son of Sennacherib; Settled foreigners in Samaria 1. Stele depicting victory over Egypt & Tyre 

2. Commemorative stone tablet recounting the rebuilding of Babylon 

3. Cuneiform clay prism contains annuals of Esarhadden 

4. Bronze plague in Louvre depicting Esarhadden and mother Nagia 

5. Many other cuneiform tablets

Ashurbanipal 668-626 B.C. Ezra 4:10 (NIV) KJV calls his Osapper – Last Assyrian King 1. Library of cuneiform tablets found at Kuyunjik

2. Ruins of buildings with extensive sculptures at Ninevah

3. Annals of Ashurbanipal – clay prism

Hilkiah ca. 639 B.C. 2 Kings 22:8 – high priest during Josiahs reign who found scroll of Torah. Ring with seal reads “belonging to Hanan, son of Hilkiah, the priest.”
Neco (Necho)
ca. 610-595 B.C. 2 Kings 23:29 – Pharaoh of Egypt; 26th dynasty; fought and killed Josiah 1. Sculpture in University Museum

2. Ushabti

3. Bowl found at Persepolis bears name and titles.

4. Stele at Sidon with name in hieroglyphics.

Jehoahaz ca. 609 B.C. 2 Kings 23:31 – 17th King of Judah; son of Josiah Seal reading “Belonging to Jehoahaz, the son of the King.”
Baruch ca. 605 B.C. Jer. 32:12 – Scribe of Jeremiah the prophet; son of Neriah 1. Bulla bought in Jerusalem antiquities market in 1975

2. Bulla in the collection of Shlomo Moussaieff. This bulla actually shows a fingerprint on the back.

Jerahmeel ca. 605 B.C. Jeremiah 36:26 – “Son” of the King Jehoiahim (possibly an official) sent to arrest Jeremiah and Baruch Seal with inscription “Belonging to Jerahmeel, the son of the King.”
Jaazaniah ca. 605 B.C. 2 Kings 25:23 – Army officer under Gedaliah Seal found at Mizpah in 1932 bears inscription “Belonging to Jaazaniah, servant of the King.”
Nebuchadnezzar 605-562 B.C. 2 Kings 24:1; Daniel 1:1 – Babylonian King; conquered Judah; God gave prophecies 1. Many cuneiform inscriptions – Babylonian Chronicle; building dedications.

2. Clay bricks of Babylon contain his name

3. Boundary stone from Sippar records land grant by Nebuchadnezzar

4. Business texts dated by Nebuchadnezzar=s reign.

Eliakim ca. 598 B.C. 2 Kings 18:18 – Steward (palace administration) of King Jehoiachin; son of Hilkiah Seal impression on jar handles found at Tell Beit Mirsim reading ABelonging to Eliakim, steward of Yaukin (Jehoiachin).
Elishama ca. 598 B.C. Jer. 36:12 – Scribe Seal impression on bulla from Jerusalem hoard that reads “Elishama, servant of the King.”
Jehoiachin ca. 597 B.C. 2 Kings 24:6 – also called Coniah; 19th ruler of Judah 1. 4 pottery handles stamped with a seal that reads “Belonging to Eliakim, steward of Jehoiachin.”

2. Cuneiform tablets found in Babylon record rations given to “Jehoiachin, King of Judah.”

Gemariah ca. 593 B.C. Jer. 29:3 – Emissary from Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar; Son of Hilkiah Lachish Ostracon I mentions a “Gemariah son of Hissilyahn.”
Hophra r. 588-564 B.C. Jer. 44:30 – Pharaoh of Egypt; 4th King of 26th Dynasty; also called Wahibpre or Apries 1. Stele records defeat of Apries by Amasis (in Cairo Museum) 

2. Palace found at Memphis 

3. Vase has a painting of Apries head and name in hieroglyphics 

4. Stele depicts him making offering to gods.

Baalis ca. 586 B.C. Jer. 40:14 – King of the Ammonites A seal impression found in 1984 at Tel el-Umeiri by the Andrews University excavation team.
Gedaliah ca. 586 B.C. 2 Kings 25:22 – Governor of Judah appointed by Nebuchadnezzar; murdered by Jewish royal relatives Seal impression (bulla) found at Lachish reads “Belonging to Gedaliah, who is over the house” (Administrator of palace)
Evil – Merodach r. 562-560 B.C. 2 Kings 25:27-30 – King of Babylon; son of Nebuchadnezzar; also called Amel-Marduk 1. Cuneiform tablet about the family of Nabonidus 

2. Cuneiform tablet listing kings

Nergalsharezer Ca. 559-556 B.C. Jer. 39:3 – Called a prince in Babylon; son-in-law of Nebuchadnezzar; ruled Babylon after Evil-Merodach. 1. Cuneiform tablets of contracts.

2. Tablets tell that he rebuilt temples.

3. Cuneiform text tells of military campaign into Cilicia.

Cyrus II or Cyrus the Great Ruled. ca. 550-529 B.C. 2 Chr. 36:22 – Persian King who founded empire; defeated Babylonians; allowed Jew to go home from captivity. 1. Inscription from Pasargadae saying, “I am Cyrus…” 

2. Nabonidus Chronicle – cuneiform inscription 

3. Cyrus cylinder 

4. Historical records by Herodotus and Aeschylus 

5. Tomb at Pasargadue in SW Iran

Belshazzar ca. 536 B.C. Daniel 5 – King of Babylon Cuneiform tablet – Yale Babylonian collection
Darius I Hystaspes or Darius the Great r. 522-486 B.C. Ezra 4:5 – King of Persia 1. Behistun Rock inscription celebrating his victories over contenders to the throne 

2. Copy of Behistun inscription found on papyrus at Elephantine 

3. Palace & Audience Hall at Persepolis with numerous reliefs and inscriptions portraying Darius 

4. Numerous cuneiform tablets 

5. Other papyri found at Elephantine

Mordecai ca. 486 B.C. Est. 2:5 – Gate official in reign of Ahasuerus at Sousa Undated tablet found at Borsippa speaks of a Mordecai who served in Sousa during Xerxes reign.
Ahasuerus Ruled
486-465 B.C.
Esther 1:1 – Ahasuerus is Greek for Xerxes; King in Esther story. 1. Audience Hall at Persepolis has relief of Xerxes with father, Darius

2. Palace at Persepolis portrays Xerxes on door.

3. Clay tablet archives chronicle his life.

4. Seals found in Egypt are inscribed “Xerxes, the great king.”

5. Elephantine papyri dated by his reign.

6. Herodotus histories

Artaxerxes I, Longimanus Ruled
ca. 465-423 B.C.
Ezra 4:7 – King of Persia; allowed Jews to return to Israel 1. Tomb of Artaxerxes known near Persepolis

2. Elephantine papyri use dates based on his reign.

3. Herodutus

Greshem the Arab ca. 450 B.C. Nehemiah 2:19 – Opposed Nehemiah and building of Jerusalem Temple 1. Silver vessel from shrine at Tell el – Maskhuta with Aramaic inscription stating that it was presented by Cain, son of Geshem, King of Qedar. 

2. Lihyanite inscription names Geshem along with the Persian governor of Dedan.

Sanballat ca. 450 B.C. Neh. 2:10 – governor of Samaria who opposed Nehemiah=s rebuilding projects 1. Aramaic papyrus from Elephantine refers to Athe sons of Sanballat, governor of Samaria. 

2. Scrolls found in Waid Daliyeh refer twice to a Ason of Sanballat   … once in a sealing and once in an Aramaic test.

Darius the Persian ca. 424-404 B.C. Neh. 12:22 – King of Persia, Successor of Artaxerxes I “The passover Papyrus” found at Elephantine
Jehohanan ca. 407 B.C. Ezra 10:6 – Son of Eliashib, the high priest 1. Elephantine papyrus to Biguai, governor of Judah, mentions Johanan, the high priest of Jerusalem.
Aretas IV 9 B.C. – A.D. 40 2 Cor. 11:32-33 – King at Damascus who arrested Paul 1. Josephus

2. 20 inscriptions use his name & reign for dating.

3. Inscription at Khirbet et Tannur dates setting up of alter to his 2nd year.

4. Inscription at Madeba calls him “he who loves his people.”

5. Coins with his likeness

Archelaus 4 B.C. – A.D. 6 Mat 2:22 – Also called Herod Archelaus; son of Herod the great; ruler of Judea & Samaria during Jesus’ childhood 1. Contemporary Histories – Dio Cassius

2. Josephus

3. Coins that have inscription “Ethrarch” or “Herod” or “Ethrarch Herod”

Antipas C 4 B.C. – A.D. 39 Luke 3:1 – Called Herod the Tetrarch in Bible 1. Josephus

2. Coins carry inscription “Herod the Tetrarch”
3. Inscription on Bronze Coins, ´Herod the Tetrarch´, ´To Gaius Caesar Germanicus´, AD 43

Augustus ca. 27 B.C. – A.D. 14 Luke 2:2 – Roman emperor during birth of Jesus; full name Gaius Octavius 1. Full biography found in long Greek & Latin inscription in Ankara, Turkey

2. Inscription celebrating his birthday

3. Coins

4. Statuary

5. Contemporary histories

Annas ca. A.D. 26 Luke 3:2 – Jewish High Priest Josephus
Caiaphas A.D. 33 Mt. 26:3 – High priest during time of Jesus 1. Josephus tells us his name was Joseph Caiaphas

2. Ossuary found in Jerusalem in 1990 has Hebrew inscription that reads “Joseph, son of Caiaphas.”

Agrippa I 


Herod Agrippa

AD 41-44 Acts 12:1 – called Herod the King; grandson of Herod the Great; King of Judea; Persecuted Christians in Jerusalem 1. Josephus

2. Contemporary Roman records

3. Coins with inscription “The Great King Agrippa, Friend of the Caesar”

4. Basalt fragment of a Nabatean inscription refers to “Agrippa, the King” (Could be either I or II)

Bernice ca. A.D. 50 Acts 25:13 – Oldest daughter of Herod Agrippa I; accompanied brother (lover) Agrippa II when Paul appeared before him. 1. Roman records including Suetonius and Dio Cassius

2. Josephus

3. Monumental stone inscription found in Beirut mentions King Agrippa and Bernice.

Claudius A.D. 51-54 Acts 11:28; 18:2 – Roman Emperor; ordered Jews to leave Rome 1. Roman historical records by Suetonias, Orosius, Tacitus and Dio Cassius

2. Coins with his name

3. Statuary

Agrippa II A.D. 56-95 Acts 25:13-26:32 – Son of Agrippa I; ruler of Northern areas of Palestine; Paul appeared before him before going to Rome; Married to Bernice 1. Josephus

2. Contemporary Roman records

3. Coins with likeness & inscription “King Agrippa”

4. Basalt fragment (see Agrippa I above)

5. Monumental stone inscription found in Beirut mention’s Herod Agrippa and Bernice.

Ananias C A.D. 58 Acts 23:2 – Jewish High Priest who opposed Paul Josephus
Correction, Additions, Errors May Kindly Be Pointed Out To: Webmaster  BiblicalArcheology.Net

Sources Of Information:  www.SpiritRestoration.Org

Biblical Archeology, Dr. Johnson C. Philip Dr. Johnson C. Philip, PhD[Physics], ThD[Apologetics], DSc[Medicine] is the founder and director of the Creation Research And Apologetics Society of India. He is the author Of more than 50 books and 2500 articles. Articles authored by him can be reproduced for non-profit purposes, provided you obtain prior permission to do so.
This article copyrighted © 2004 by Anand Philip

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